The Resources and Waste Strategy: Far enough? Fast enough?

Published: 2 Jan 2019

By: Tom Bousfield

Tagged:

Tin cans in a recycling bin

The Government’s recent Resources and Waste Strategy is a welcome addition to the sector. It is comprehensive in its scope, covering everything from coffee cups to waste crime, and ambitious in both the range and detail of its proposals.

We particularly welcome the strategy since it takes on board all of the recommendations on tackling waste from the National Infrastructure Assessment, published in July.

But the ultimate test of any strategy is the degree to which it changes behaviour, and the number of its measures that are implemented.  With strong public support for action in this area, we will monitor progress closely.

The Resources and Waste Strategy sets out seven forthcoming consultations. These are clearly important, particularly where they may restrict the use of certain products, such as straws, which have a clear medical use case. But it is equally important that consultations lead to action.

There is a strong case for change in the waste sector. Sir David Attenborough’s Blue Planet has generated a wave of public support. Our social research showed that English households see recycling as important, with 79 per cent of those asked prepared to separate their food waste, 68 per cent already sorting plastics packaging for recycling and half of those questioned saying they would pay up to £30 a year more for their groceries in exchange for more recyclable packaging.

With that in mind, the National Infrastructure Assessment recommendations are designed to meet key targets for recycling 65 per cent of all municipal waste and 75 per cent of all plastics packaging by 2030 – a key test of the Government’s new strategy will also be the impact it makes on these overall measures.

In that context, and as our National Infrastructure Assessment highlighted, there is a strong case for targeting plastic packaging. Increasing the recycling rate reduces emissions where plastic waste would otherwise have been burnt, and prevents leachates from contaminating local water systems.

The Strategy and the Autumn Budget include plans to expand the use of fiscal incentives and the ‘polluter pays’ principle in the sector. This is sensible, especially given how tax instruments have been very successful in the waste sector:  the landfill tax played a central role in in reducing the amount of local authority waste sent to landfill from 80 per cent in 2001 to just over 10 per cent by 2018; similarly, the plastic bag tax appears to have dramatically reduced use since introduction.

When looking at future fiscal incentives, the Government should try to make them as smart as administratively possible. This means focusing on the environmental costs: an incineration tax, as mentioned in both the Strategy and the Budget, should concentrate on the material that generates harmful emissions – plastics; similarly, a landfill tax should concentrate on the biodegrable waste that generates methane.

In the forthcoming consultation, the Government will consider targets for specific materials. We think there is a case for being particularly ambitious on plastic packaging. The voluntary plastics pact, to which a number of prominent businesses such as Asda and M&S have signed up to, sets a target of 70 per cent recycled or compostable plastic packaging by 2025. Our recommendation for a 75 per cent recycling target for plastic packaging is below long-term trends for the UK as a whole – but would be ambitious in applying to England alone.

The strategy proposes consistent collection services for households and businesses, and separate collection for food waste. Both are positive, and were recommended in our Assessment.

Our social research showed that people in England wanted to recycle more but felt frustrated by the system. In particular, they wanted reassurance that recycling was not going to landfill. Identifying a core set of dry recyclable materials and sending the same signal both at home and in work are important ways to unpick the confusion and to diffuse some of the bad faith in the system.

With legislation proposed for 2023, the Government should identify the core materials promptly so that, as local authority collection services roll over, they can move to the new system. To accelerate this process, the Commission recommended £100m of transitional capital from 2020 to 2023 to cover the costs for new containers.

But one issue will be that knowledge of commercial waste has been poor to date: Defra recently revised its estimate by nearly 40%. Understanding the quantity and flow of this waste is important for identifying and building the appropriate infrastructure.

The move away from weight-based towards impact-based targets is positive. This will prevent councils from chasing the heaviest but not the most environmentally significant waste streams, such as glass. It may also dramatically redraw recycling performance across the country, where suburban and rural authorities have led. This is something central and local government will need to prepare themselves – and the public – for.

This strategy is a big step forward. It is the most significant document to have been published in the sector since the 2011 Waste Review. The scope and detail are ambitious. The strong public support means Ministers have a real opportunity to make a considerable difference to the way we manage our waste and – in turn – the impact it has on our environment. With the direction now set, the key challenge will be delivery.

Tom Bousfield is an Economic Adviser at the National Infrastructure Commission

Share this article

<

Recent Articles

Coming up in 2022
Thumbtack pins in calendar concept for busy, appointment and meeting reminder

Coming up in 2022

This page shows a calendar reflecting the latest expected dates for Commission reports, publications and events. You can also sign up to receive our quarterly newsletter by entering your email address in the box at the very foot of our homepage; or sign up to receive updates specifically on the programme for the second National...

22 Feb 2022 By
Armitt on drought resilience: fixing leaks, reducing demand, building supply
Dry soil and patchy grass

Armitt on drought resilience: fixing leaks, reducing demand, building supply

In a comment piece for The Times’ Red Box, Commission Chair Sir John Armitt today sets out steps to help reduce the risk of future severe drought in England. The piece, reproduced below, argues for further action on identifying leaks, expanding water metering and reducing consumer demand, and building new supply and transfer infrastructure. Sir...

8 Aug 2022 By
Commission hears from Bristol about city’s infrastructure priorities
Bristol Civic Centre

Commission hears from Bristol about city’s infrastructure priorities

Friday last week (22 July) saw Commissioners in Bristol for our fourth regional visit of the summer, meeting the city’s Mayor and local leaders and businesses, and local residents, to understand the city’s infrastructure challenges. After a one-to-one meeting, Sir John Armitt and the Mayor of Bristol Marvin Rees co-hosted a roundtable with representatives from...

25 Jul 2022 By
West Yorkshire leaders engage on region’s infrastructure goals
Leeds from the air

West Yorkshire leaders engage on region’s infrastructure goals

Yesterday (5 July) saw Commissioners up in Leeds for our third regional visit of the summer, meeting West Yorkshire leaders and businesses to better understand the city region’s infrastructure priorities. After a one-to-one meeting, Sir John Armitt and West Yorkshire Mayor Tracy Brabin co-hosted a roundtable with representatives from the combined authority, Leeds City Council,...

6 Jul 2022 By

Evidence_Icon_Turquoise Created with Sketch.

Explore data used in the Commission's research, and gain insights from across UK infrastructure

Join our team of professionals supporting the Commission to provide evidence based and forward thinking advice on infrastructure strategy.